Sorbitol is widely used as an excipient in pharmaceutical formulations. It is also used extensively in cosmetics and food products. Sorbitol is used as a diluent in tablet formulations prepared by either wet granulation or direct compression. It is particularly useful in chewable tablets owing to its pleasant, sweet taste and cooling sensation.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the food additive regulations to provide for the safe use of sorbitol anhydride esters, an emulsifier blend of sorbitan monostearate, polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate (polysorbate 60) and polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monolaurate (polysorbate 20) as an anticorrosive agent in boilers where steam may contact food.
It is oiI-in-water emulsifier, can be used as solvent, diffusant, stabilizer, lubricant and anti-static agent etc. It is widely used as solubilizer, permeate agent and dispersantin medical, cosmetics and food industry.
Sorbitan monolaurate is a mixture of esters formed from the fatty acid lauric acid and polyols derived from sorbitol, including sorbitan and isosorbide. It widely used as surface active substances and raw materials .
The results show that the Arrhenius equation can be successfully used to describe the relation between k d and absolute temperature (T), and concentrations of surfactants, stirring speed, stirring time and salinities also have great effect on the k d. At last, the CGAs drainage mechanism is explained from analysis of the rate of liquid drainage as a function of time.
2. Esterification reaction of OH group coming from sugar and sorbitol with acid group of phthalic anhydride, oxalic acid and maleic anhydride. 3. Etherification reaction between two OH groups in sorbitol and sugar .The catalyst used in B1, B3, and B4 are HCl and Tween80.
purposes: increase can be used as solvent, the proliferation of agents, stabilizers, antistatic agents, such as lubricant. preparation or sources: sorbic acid anhydride monolaurate sugar alcohols and esters of ethylene oxide in the reaction system. Note: acid value ?2 mg KOH / g. Saponification value 40-55 mg KOH / g. Hydroxyl value 90-100 mg ...
Boiler water additives may be safely used in the preparation of steam that will contact food, under the following conditions: (a) The amount of additive is not in excess of that required for its functional purpose, and the amount of steam in contact with food does not exceed that required to produce the intended effect in or on the food.
The additive sorbitan monolaurate consists of sorbitol (and its anhydrides) esterified with fatty acids derived from coconut oil. It is intended to be used as a technological additive, functional ...
Sorbitol anhydride esters: A mixture consisting of sorbitan monostearate as defined in 172.842 of this chapter; polysorbate 60 ((polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate)) as defined in 172.836 of this chapter; and polysorbate 20 ((polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monolaurate)), meeting the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, pp. 825-827.
Naphthalene is used to make mothballs, PVC, insecticides (insect killing chemicals), dyes, toilet deodorant blocks, and phthalic anhydride. The latter, among many other things, is used to make pharmaceutical and resins. Naphthalene is flammable and potentially explosive.
Dehydration of perchloric acid gives the anhydride dichlorine heptoxide: 2 HClO 4 + P 4 O 10 → Cl 2 O 7 + "H 2 P 4 O 11 " Uses. Perchloric acid is mainly produced as a precursor to ammonium perchlorate, which is used in rocket fuel. The growth in rocketry has led to increased production of perchloric acid.
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SORBITAN OLEATE. It is used as a excipient and intravenous osmotic diuretic in pharmaceutical fields. It is also used in the manufacture of polyethers for polyurethanes and surfactants. The term sorbitan describes the anhydride form of sorbitol, whose fatty acids are lipophilic whereas sorbitol body is hydrophilic.
Sorbitan monolaurate is a detergent and monoester of lauric acid and hexitol anhydrides derived from sorbitol. It is used in a study to assess enhanced solubility and oral bioavailability of itraconazole. It is also used in a study to investigate the oxidation of unsaturated lipids in oil-in-water emulsions. Solubility
Water Treatment Requirements for Low and Medium Pressure Boilers by William (Bill) Harfst April 27, 2015 Low and medium pressure boilers must be protected from scale deposition and corrosion to promote optimum energy efficiency and prolong the useful life of the plant equipment.
It is used for vitamin-C fermentation. It is used as a excipient and intravenous osmotic diuretic in pharmaceutical fields. It is also used in the manufacture of polyethers for polyurethanes and surfactants. The term sorbitan describes the anhydride form of sorbitol, whose fatty acids are lipophilic whereas sorbitol body is hydrophilic.
Personal Care Chemicals- Lab Fine Chemicals. Spectrum supplies a wide variety of personal care chemicals, cosmetic chemicals, and active cosmetic ingredients for the personal care industry, including functional ingredients like cleansers & conditioners, aesthetic modifiers, and active ingredients.
Sorbitan is a mixture of isomeric organic compounds derived from the dehydration of sorbitol and is an intermediate in the conversion of sorbitol to isosorbide. Sorbitan is primarily used in the production of surfactants such as polysorbates ; which are important emulsifying agents, with a total annual demand of more than 10000 tons in 2012.
Polysorbates are prepared from sorbitol in a three-step process. Water is initially removed from the sorbitol to form a sorbitan (a cyclic sorbitol anhydride). The sorbitan is then partially esterified with a fatty acid, such as oleic or stearic acid, to yield a hexitan ester.
Intro to Organic Chemistry: Carboxylic Acids; Carboxylic Anhydrides, Esters & Amides; Carbohydrates; Lipids. Numbering for substituents starts at the carbonyl carbon (commonly use greek letters as locants). Numbers of the carboxyl carbons not needed as the can only be at the ends of the parent chain. When carboxyl group present at both ends, add suffix -dioic acid.
Their appearance may vary from an amber-colored oily, viscous liquid, to a light cream color, to tan beads or flakes or a hard, waxy solid with a slight odor They are also used as surfactants or emulsifying agents in the preparation of emulsions, creams, and ointments for pharmaceutical and cosmetic use.
Dissolved in water, methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, propylene glycol, ethylene glycol, such as cottonseed oil. HLB16.7. For the oil / water type emulsifiers, can be used by solvent, the proliferation of agents, stabilizers, anti-static agent, a lubricant. By sorbitol Monolaurate anhydride and ethylene oxide in the reaction.
are used. D-Sorbitol is a reduced form of glucose, and it is readily available at a low cost. It has been used to synthesize polyesters with dicar-boxylates such as divinyl sebacate16 and adipic acid,17–19 mostly through enzymatic catalysis. Historically, citric acid was isolated from cit-rus fruits, but it is currently produced commer-
These compounds are prepared by heating sorbitol and fatty acids at 160 in the presence of a catalyst such as p-toluenesulfonic acid (p-TSA). Two of the known polyols other than sorbitol itself are its anhydride, 1,4-sorbitan (1,4- * Corresponding author. 0021-9673/95/$09.50 O 1995 Elsevier Science B.V.
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